Gagne’s Nine Events of Instruction

As part of my duties as an eIntern for the Virtual Student Federal Service program, I, along with two other eInterns, had to revise an existing lesson plan used by the U.S. Department of State. Whenever I develop or revise a lesson plan I use Gagne’s Nine Events of Instruction as a framework. To me, Gagne’s Nine Events of Instruction or G9 consist of good instruction codified; that is, they are what good instructors or teachers already do put down into a systematic series of events. Gagne outlined the external events that would stimulate internal cognitive processes and facilitate learning.  Here are Gagne’s Nine Events of Instruction

  1. Gain Attention– in order for a person to learn something he or she must first attend to the thing to be learned
  2. Inform Learners of the  Learning Objectives– this allows the learner to set his or her expectation for learning and direct attention throughout learning
  3. Stimulate Recall of Prior Learning– new information is learned more efficiently when it is tied to or related to something that has already been learned
  4. Present the Stimulus (or content)– the instructor delivers the content
  5. Provide Learning Guidance– the instructor uses instructional strategies such as repetition, mnemonics, and questioning to assist the learner’s acquistion of information or skill development
  6. Elicit Performance– the instructor gives the learner the opportunity to practice the learning content
  7. Provide Performance Feedback– the instructor provides the learner with feedback on his or her performance, coaching to proficiency; this is like a practice test. Practice without feedback is a waste of time.
  8. Assess Performance– this is like a final assessment, used to measure the learners mastery of the content
  9. Enhance Retention and Transfer to Other Contexts– the instructor may provide the learner with job aids, mnemonics, handouts, etc. to increase the probability of the learner retaining what has been learned and using what has been learned in other contexts, such as the performance context

I have had success with developing efficient and effective instruction by using Gagne’s Nine Events of Instruction, and I use them whenever I have to create micro-level instruction. I recommend you use them too. G9!

Here is a list of books by Robert Gagne.



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